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德国MAN公司分享船东和船舶产业如何向新能源应用转型

如何准备达到2050年航运排放目标的策略?为了完成海上运输中温室气体的减排,船东、监管机构和建造商需要遵循多条技术道路,以实现2050年的目标。从用于海岸线活动的电池到各种燃料(例如LNG,甲醇,LPG和乙烷)以及替代燃料(例如氨,合成甲烷和绿色氢),海上能源转型不仅需要一种解决方案,也需要投资。德国MAN公司近日在其网站上分享了一篇船东和船舶产业如何向新能源应用转型的文章, 正筹备“第四届2020国际船用洗涤塔和压载水系统产业上海峰会‘’将于2020年6月17日-18日在上海市举办的国际船舶海工网了解到

改装后的“ Wes Amelie”号是一艘1,036 teu的支线集装箱船,现在部分使用液化SNG(合成天然气)。

2020年1月1日,标志着海上运输业的一个里程碑。从那时起,所有航运公司均受国际海事组织(IMO)限制使用高硫燃料的新规则的约束。该规则是未来几十年可能要进行的几轮监管以清洁航运中的第一条规则。

巴黎的谈判代表故意将航运(占全球CO2排放量的2.2%)从2015年12月达成的气候协定中撤出。取而代之的是,留给IMO制定行业走向脱碳的路线,并迫使船东投资于下一代低碳船舶和燃料。

如果海事部门要及时成功过渡到零碳燃料以尽自己的一份力量来减缓气候变化,那么今天就必须采取行动。2030年下水的船只将在2050年仍在海上–根据IMO在2018年4月采用的战略,该行业将使其年度温室气体总排放量至少减少50%。

20 %液化天然气可潜在减少二氧化碳排放

3 %全球二氧化碳排放量是由运输引起的

700亿美元每年投资才能达到IMO 2050的目标

同时:灵活的燃油系统对于船东而言,遵守IMO的低硫燃油规则虽然是后勤方面的挑战,但相对来说却很简单。随着时间的准备,他们改用柴油或超低硫重质燃料油或安装洗涤塔以消除烟囱中的排放物。脱碳将更加困难。船东将不得不立即走两条互补的道路:提高效率以减少燃料燃烧并转换为无碳燃料,但是从何开始呢?

第一条轨道包括解决方案,例如废热回收系统和混合解决方案的电池,最新的螺旋桨系统以及优化的泵。第二条路线包括令人眼花options乱的选项菜单:传统的基于化石的燃料,例如LNG,甲醇,LPG和乙烷,以及替代燃料,例如氨,合成甲烷和绿色氢。

MAN PrimeServ 高级副总裁Stefan Eefting

“所有这些都已开始开发和调查。业界正在认真研究所有选项。很难说谁会赢得比赛。” MAN PrimeServ 高级副总裁Stefan Eefting说。

大量机会伴随着风险。“存在一些不确定性,因为每个人都意识到变革的必要性。但是很显然,您还没有一个解决方案。” MAN Energy Solutions高级副总裁兼两冲程业务主管Bjarne Foldager说。“可能有几种不同的解决方案,可能很难评估将赌注押在何处的风险。”

“我们建议船东,”他补充道,“他们需要在决策中充分考虑燃油灵活性。可能没有一种解决方案可适用于整个船舶寿命。对于船东而言,获得充分的燃油灵活性至关重要,以确保他的投资能够证明未来的发展。”

Eefting已经看到了一个潜在的路线图:“现在和中期,我们将液化天然气视为满足环境标准并将二氧化碳减少多达20%的良好燃料。我们已经看到对使用LNG的双燃料发动机的兴趣日益增长,我们已经售出了400多台,但在全球总运输量中所占的比例仍然很低。”

只有在政府和组织的坚定承诺下,海洋能源转型才能奏效

“但是脱碳不能仅靠液化天然气或任何其他化石资源而停止,我们也不会停止。为了达到碳中和,我们需要更大的二氧化碳减排量。我们认为,未来属于可再生能源产生的合成无碳燃料。在这条道路上,液化天然气并不是一项无休止的投资,它是对未来的投资,因为所有此类发动机都可以使用无碳燃料运行而无需进一步的技术改造。”

不同的低碳解决方案将更适合不同的应用,无论是在海岸附近还是在公海。近岸渡轮和拖船将能够过渡到电池电力推进。Foldager表示,对于远洋集装箱船和油轮,“电气化可能是优化燃油效率的一个很好的解决方案,但对于大型集装箱船或大型油轮,这绝不是主要的推动力。电池中的能量密度不足。”

为最大的远洋轮船开发无碳燃料将需要采取激励措施和限制措施。如今,替代燃料(如果有的话)与较脏的碳密集型燃料相比价格高昂。需要通过基于全球市场的工具建立价格信号,以阻止使用基于碳的燃料。

Foldager说:“我们要做的是在全球范围内建立联盟,并让IMO支持CO 2税,然后将资金用于研发,为这些燃料类型的供应链和大规模生产开发解决方案。”

MAN能源解决方案两冲程业务主管Bjarne Foldager

我们需要让IMO支持二氧化碳税,然后将资金转移到研发中

长期:所有利益相关者的合作与投资

2019年12月,国际航运商会提出了世界上第一个致力于减少CO 2排放的合作航运研发计划。该提案将使全球每年消耗的2.5亿吨海洋燃料的每吨强制性费用增加2美元。预计将在10年内筹集50亿美元的资金,用于“到2030年代初期开发商业上可行的零碳排放船”的目标。

这只是一个开始,但与解决该问题所需的条件相比却相形见pale。2020年1月,由“走向零联盟”委托进行的一项研究发现,航运业必须在2030年至2050年之间每年投资至多700亿美元,才能实现IMO的2050年减排目标。

Sajir转换为双燃料操作

Hapag-Lloyd拥有的15,000 TEU集装箱船Sajir正在转换为双燃料运营。

Stefan Eefting说:“只有在政府,官员和组织也做出了坚定的承诺,使我们朝着正确的方向进一步发展时,海洋能源过渡才能奏效。” 他补充说:“按传统,发货人只会考虑将类似的东西放到适当的位置,然后进行投资,如果国际海事组织要求的话。”

确保所有市场参与者的公平竞争环境是监管机构的职责和责任。但是,像海洋产业这样具有全球性的产业只能在全球范围内进行监管。所有其他方法都将导致危险的法规拼凑,并削弱减少排放措施的有效性。

国际海事组织必须强迫落后者跟上致力于气候行动的船东。如果该行业有任何机会实现其长期脱碳目标,则需要更加激进的强制性规则!诸如IMO十年前通过的新船的能效设计指数之类的小步骤不足以使整个行业走上削减科学要求的规模排放的道路。

关于作者 贾斯汀·格德斯(Justin Gerdes)是旧金山湾区的独立记者,专门研究能源问题。

国际船舶海工网也邀请您关注:

第三届2020年LNG动力船和LNG技术装备上海国际峰会将于2020年9月1日-2日举办

第四届2020国际船用洗涤塔和压载水系统产业上海峰会 将于2020年6月17-18日在上海市举办

免费的2020年绿色船舶创新上海国际展览和论坛将于10月20-22日举办

How to achieve the Maritime Energy Transition

Strategies to Meet 2050 Emission Goals in Shipping

To complete the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in maritime shipping, ship owners, regulatory agencies and builders need to follow multiple tracks to meet 2050 goals. From electric batteries for shoreline activity to a variety of fuels like LNG, methanol, LPG, and ethane as well as alternative fuels like ammonia, synthetic methane, and green hydrogen, maritime energy transition requires more than just one solution, and more than one investor.

By Justin Gerdes

January 1, 2020, marked a milestone for the maritime shipping industry. From that date, all shippers were bound by new International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules restricting the use of high-sulfur fuels. The rules are the first of what are likely to be several rounds of regulation to clean up shipping in the coming decades.

Negotiators in Paris deliberately left shipping, which accounts for 2.2% of global CO2 emissions, out of the climate agreement struck in December 2015. Instead, it was left to the IMO to chart the industry’s course towards decarbonization and to compel shipowners to invest in the next generation of low-carbon ships and fuels.

If the maritime sector is to successfully transition to zero-carbon fuels in time to do its part to slow climate change, action must begin today. Ships launched in 2030 will still be at sea in 2050 – when, according to an IMO strategy adopted in April 2018, the sector is to have reduced its total annual greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50 percent.

20 % potential reductions in CO2 by using LNG

3 % of worldwide CO2 emissions are caused by shipping

70 $ billion annually must be invested by shipping to meet IMO 2050 goals

In the meantime: flexible fuel systems

For shipowners, compliance with the IMO’s low-sulfur fuel rules, while a logistical challenge, was relatively straightforward. With time to prepare, they switched to diesel oil or ultra-low sulfur heavy fuel oil or installed scrubbers to remove emissions at the stack. Decarbonization will be much harder. Shipowners will have to pursue two complementary tracks at once: boosting efficiency to reduce fuel burn and switching to carbon-free fuels, but where to begin?

The first track encompasses solutions like waste heat recovery systems and batteries for hybrid solutions, up-to-date propeller systems and optimized pumps. The second track includes a dizzying menu of options: legacy fossil-based fuels like LNG, methanol, LPG, and ethane as well as alternative fuels like ammonia, synthetic methane, and green hydrogen.

“All of this is starting to be developed and investigated. The industry is seriously looking into all the options. It is hard to say who will win the race,” says Stefan Eefting, Senior Vice President, MAN PrimeServ Augsburg.

The abundance of opportunities comes with a risk. “There’s a bit of uncertainty because everybody realizes the need for change. But it’s also clear that you don’t have one solution,” says Bjarne Foldager, Senior Vice President & Head of Two-Stroke Business, MAN Energy Solutions. “There could be several different solutions, and it might be difficult to assess the risk of where to place your bets.”

“What we are recommending to shipowners,” he adds, “is they need to consider the full fuel flexibility in their decisions. There might not be one solution that will be applicable to the entire life of the ship. Getting the full fuel flexibility is paramount for the shipowner to ensure that his investment is future proof.”

Eefting already sees a potential roadmap: “Right now and medium-term we see LNG as a good fuel to meet environmental standards and to reduce CO2 by up to 20%. We already see an increasing interest in dual fuel engines running on LNG, we’ve sold more than 400 already, but that is still a very low percentage of total shipping worldwide.”

Stefan-Eefting, Head of MAN PrimeServ Augsburg, Germany

The maritime energy transition will only work out if there is a strong commitment from governments and organizations

“But decarbonization cannot stop with LNG or any other fossile resource and we will not stop either. To reach carbon neutrality we need bigger CO2 reductions. We think the future belongs to synthetic carbon-free fuels generated from renewable energy. On this road LNG is not a dead-end investments, it’s an investment into the future as all such engines can run on carbon-free fuels without further technical adaptions.”

Different low-carbon solutions will be a better fit for different applications, be it near shore or on the open sea. Near-shore ferries and tugboats will be able to transition to battery electric propulsion. For ocean-going container ships and tankers, says Foldager, “electrification could be a good solution in terms of optimizing the fuel efficiency, but it can never be the main propulsion for a big container ship or a big tanker. The energy density in batteries is insufficient.”

Developing carbon-free fuels for the largest ocean-going ships will require the use of incentives and restrictions. Today, alternative fuels – when available – come at a price premium compared to dirtier, carbon-intensive fuels. A price signal established via a global market-based instrument is needed to discourage the use of carbon-based fuels.

“What we need to do is create coalitions globally and get the IMO to support a CO2 tax and then funnel the money into R&D development and into developing solutions for the supply chain and large-scale production of these fuel types,” says Foldager.

Bjarne Foldager, Head of Two-Stroke Business, MAN Energy Sol

We need to get the IMO to support a CO2 tax and then funnel the money into R&D

Long-term: cooperation and investment by all stakeholders

In December 2019, the International Chamber of Shipping proposed the world’s first collaborative shipping R&D program dedicated to reducing CO2 emissions. The proposal would add a mandatory USD $2 per ton fee to the 250 million tons of marine fuel consumed globally each year. Funds raised – an estimated $5 billion over 10 years – would be deployed with the goal of developing “commercially viable zero-carbon emission ships by the early 2030s.”

It’s a start but pales compared to what is required to solve the problem. A study commissioned by the Getting to Zero Coalition published on January 2020 found that the shipping industry must invest up to $70 billion annually between 2030 and 2050 to meet the IMO’s 2050 emissions reduction target.

Coversion-to-dual-fuel-opersation-for-the-Sajir

The 15,000 TEU container vessel Sajir, owned by Hapag-Lloyd, is undergoing a conversion to dual-fuel operation.

“The maritime energy transition will only work out if there is also a strong commitment from governments and officials and organizations to make us move further in the right direction,” says Stefan Eefting. “Shippers by tradition will only think about putting something like that into place, and invest into, it if it is demanded by the IMO,” he adds.

It’s the job and responsibility of the regulating body to ensure a level playing field for all market participants. But an industry as global as the marine industry can only be regulated on a global scale. All other approaches would lead to a dangerous patchwork of regulations and undermine the effectiveness of the measures to reduce emissions.

The IMO must force laggards to keep up with shipowners who are committed to climate action. If the industry is to have any chance to meet its long-term decarbonization targets, much more aggressive mandatory rules are needed! Baby steps, such as the Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships adopted by the IMO nearly a decade ago, are not sufficient to put the industry on a course to slash emissions on the scale demanded by science.

About the author

Justin Gerdes is a San Francisco Bay Area-based independent journalist specializing in energy issues.

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