Chinese famous prof. said Globe enters "Ammonia = Hydrogen 2.0"
At the 2021 China Society of Automotive Engineering Annual Conference in Shanghai recently, Chinese famous prof.Li Jun, chairman of the China Society of Automotive Engineering, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and professor of Tsinghua University made a keynote speech entitled "Autonomy 2.0 and Ammonia= Hydrogen 2.0", he believes that the global industry has entered the era of "Ammonia=Hydrogen 2.0", and the hydrogen energy industry must be prepared to develop in the direction of ammonia.
Invitation to 2nd NH3 & Ammonia-Fueled Power System ShanghaiSummit 2021
This saying is regarded as a piece of good news for Chinese new energy industry, especially "2nd NH3 Industry & Ammonia-Fueled Power System Shanghai Int'l Summit 2021" is planning to take place on Dec 16-17, 2021, in Shanghai downtown.
"2nd NH3 Industry & Ammonia-Fueled Power System Shanghai Int'l Summit 2021" 's information as the link below:
2nd NH3 Industry & Ammonia-Fueled System Shanghai Summit 2021
The full report on prof.Li Jun's speech as below:
(which was automatically translated from Chinese into English )
Professor Li Jun of Tsinghua University believes that the world has entered the era of "Ammonia = Hydrogen 2.0", and the hydrogen energy industry is developing in the direction of ammonia
At the 2021 China Society of Automotive Engineering Annual Conference with the theme of "Auto + X, Automotive Technology Innovation in the Dual-Carbon Background" held in Shanghai recently, Li Jun, chairman of the China Society of Automotive Engineering, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and professor of Tsinghua University made a presentation The keynote report entitled "Autonomy 2.0 and Ammonia=Hydrogen2.0", he believes that the world has entered the era of "Ammonia=Hydrogen 2.0", and the hydrogen energy industry must be prepared to develop in the direction of ammonia.
Li Jun , a professor at Tsinghua University, pointed out that at present, hydrogen energy vehicles have an obvious long-tail effect. In recent years, hydrogen energy related laws and regulations have been gradually improved, and as expected, a major explosion of hydrogen energy vehicles will usher in. However, in fact, the evaluation system of hydrogen energy vehicles involves transportation, storage, vehicle-mounted, power, safety, cost and other aspects, such as thermal management, Complex industrial chain issues such as hydrogen carrying capacity and hydrogenation standards all affect market development, and the resulting long-tail effect urgently needs to be considered by the entire industry.
At the same time, he also proposed that the carbon-free fuel used by mankind is not only hydrogen, but also other fuels. A new energy vehicle integrating ammonia and hydrogen may be an excellent solution. The global ammonia energy is very rich, especially my country is a big country in the world ammonia production, the world's annual production is about 200 million tons, and my country's production capacity accounts for about a quarter of the world.
Li Jun listed ten advantages of ammonia as a fuel, including high energy density; easy to liquefy; easy to transport and complete equipment; it can be transported by LNG, which is the best carrier of hydrogen energy; the output and production efficiency are much higher than that of liquid hydrogen; Low cost; high safety and not easy to explode; it is the fuel for all transportation equipment and is widely used.
Li Jun also said that the integration of ammonia and hydrogen energy will create a new system of hydrogen energy transportation, storage and supply, which can be used for fuel cells and internal combustion engines, and is more suitable for commercial vehicles for long-distance transportation. In addition, it is also possible to build a zero-carbon emission internal combustion engine. The existing diesel engine can be turned into an ammonia-hydrogen fusion internal combustion engine by only changing 9 NPA components, which is a low-carbon internal combustion engine. This will also give the diesel engine industry a new lease of life in the "carbon neutral" era.
Mao Zongqiang, a professor at the Institute of Nuclear Energy and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, who has served as the vice chairman of the International Hydrogen Energy Association, is also optimistic about the development of hydrogen-ammonia integration in a recent interview. He said that because of the low cost of ammonia conversion hydrogen and sufficient ammonia supply, etc. Advantages, liquid ammonia may become a new storage and transportation method comparable to liquid hydrogen. Diversified use of green energy is essential to the realization of the "dual carbon" goal. Under the major premise of the hydrogen energy strategy, the entire hydrogen energy industry should use the advantages of hydrogen energy in the transportation field to provide more testing opportunities for hydrogen-based compounds including ammonia, draw scientific conclusions, and carry out large-scale promotion. To achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality, look for diverse paths and technologies.
Professor Mao Zongqiang from Tsinghua University: How can “ammonia be used as a hydrogen-based energy source” as a major decarbonization task?
In order to better communicate the development trends and opportunities of the new energy industry, the first "2021 Shanghai International Summit Forum on the Development of Ammonia Fuel Power System Industry" was successfully held in the three days from May 26 to 28, 2021. The industry strongly appealed that the “Second 2021 Ammonia Industry and Ammonia Fuel Power System Shanghai International Summit Forum” will continue to be held in Shanghai on December 16-17. The conference will extensively invite domestic and foreign land and sea owners, manufacturers, investment institutions, shipowners, shipyards, research and development units, equipment manufacturers, supporting manufacturers, design, trade, service and investment representatives to participate in the exchange, discussion and sharing of ammonia The development status and trends of clean new energy market opportunities in industries and ammonia fuel power systems in shipping, ships, internal combustion engines, aircraft, automobiles, municipalities, electric power, engineering, ports, logistics and other industries. Enquiry and registration email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
In a keynote report entitled "Autonomy 2.0 and Ammonia=Hydrogen2.0", Li Jun, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a professor at Tsinghua University , proposed one of the major basic innovation directions that the Chinese automobile industry should attach great importance to: "Ammonia=Hydrogen 2.0". It seems that a feasible path has been proposed for the large-scale promotion of hydrogen energy.
Ammonia may be the best carrier for hydrogen energy
Li Jun pointed out that hydrogen energy vehicles currently have an obvious long-tail effect: "Hydrogen energy vehicles have decades of research and development history. In recent years, hydrogen energy related laws and regulations have gradually improved. According to expectations, hydrogen energy vehicles will usher in a major explosion, but In fact, the hydrogen vehicle evaluation system involves transportation, storage, vehicle, power, safety, cost and other aspects. Complex industrial chain issues such as thermal management, hydrogen carrying capacity, and hydrogen refueling standards all affect market development. The long-tail effect of the industry urgently needs to be considered by the entire industry."
It is understood that Joi Scientific proposed the vision of Hydrogen2.0 in 2016 to overcome the restrictions on the preparation, storage, transportation and release of energy in the use of hydrogen. In 2017, the Global Ammonia Energy Alliance proposed Ammonia=Hydrogen2.0 (Ammonia=Hydrogen2.0) To create a new green ammonia energy system to solve the long-tail problem of single hydrogen energy.
The origin of this concept is actually well understood. Ammonia is an energy source with many advantages. The first qualification requirement for future energy sources is that they do not emit greenhouse gases that will accelerate global warming. Since ammonia does not release carbon dioxide when burned like hydrogen, it can be said that it has the qualification requirements for future energy. It can also be seen from the structural formula of ammonia (NH) that the only elements it carries are nitrogen and hydrogen, which completely avoids the problem of carbon emissions. In addition, as hydrogen energy is more and more commercially used, the stability of ammonia, Easy storage and other properties, or can become a better hydrogen energy carrier.
Compared with hydrogen energy, the proposal of "Ammonia = Hydrogen 2.0" has richer connotations. According to reports, the current global ammonia resource reserves are abundant, the preparation cost is lower, and ammonia is easier to store. The energy density of liquid ammonia is twice that of hydrogen, and the storage capacity of the same volume is twice that of liquid hydrogen. In terms of infrastructure, the existing ammonia The distribution channel is very mature and the cost is low. Humans have already benefited from ammonia; the current commercial ammonia production technology is mature, and the ammonia production from renewable energy sources is highly available and widely used; in terms of safety, ammonia can be stored in a liquid state, which is safe Extremely high. The impact on the environment is small, and the impact of the existing ammonia industry chain on the environment is controllable.
For the ammonia energy industry, after years of research, the Global Ammonia Energy Alliance predicts that "ammonia is the winner of green energy in the future" from 10 dimensions: a true zero-carbon fuel; high energy density; easy to liquefy; easy to transport and complete equipment; available for LNG transportation , Is the best carrier of hydrogen energy; output and production efficiency are much higher than that of liquid hydrogen; low cost; high safety and not easy to explode; fuel for all transportation equipment; widely used (power generation, agricultural machinery, building materials).
In this regard, Li Jun proposed that an ammonia-hydrogen fusion integrated hydrogen energy vehicle may be an excellent solution.
There are three major paths for ammonia and hydrogen fusion
In fact, experiments to study the use of ammonia as a fuel have already been carried out globally.
The reporter of "China Automobile News" learned that the United States has built three green renewable ammonia energy bases in Alaska, Hawaii, and Iowa, and has developed high-tech green renewable ammonia energy manufacturing based on geothermal energy in Alaska. At the same time, a 3,000-mile (approximately 4,828 kilometers) liquid ammonia transportation pipeline is under construction and will cover the entire United States in the future; based on the Hawaiian ammonia energy base, an ammonia energy transportation network covering the Asia-Pacific will be built. Japan released the "Japan embracing ammonia power to achiever 2050 zero COtarget" ammonia energy strategy in April 2021, stating that ammonia has become a new international strategy to tackle climate change.
Li Jun said that the world is entering the era of "Ammonia = Hydrogen 2.0", and ammonia energy technology is developing from gray ammonia to blue ammonia and green ammonia. According to the report of the Ammonia Energy Association, the current annual production of ammonia is approximately 200 million tons, making it the second largest chemical product in the world. While each ton of synthetic ammonia produces 1.8 tons of CO, my country's annual production of synthetic ammonia is 50 million to 60 million tons, accounting for 25%-30% of global production. At present, synthetic ammonia is the first-generation gray ammonia. The production of the second-generation zero-carbon blue ammonia (natural gas cracking and CO capture) and the third-generation renewable energy synthetic ammonia before 2030 are both near future plans.
The five fusion directions mentioned in the keynote report by Li Jun also emphasized the fusion of ammonia-hydrogen fuel. There are three main aspects: First, build a vehicle-mounted ammonia-hydrogen fusion zero-carbon fuel platform. Liquid ammonia brings hydrogen into automobiles. The innovation of on-board ammonia reforming hydrogen production technology solves the problem of on-board hydrogen storage bottles for vehicle design. Based on thermal cracking catalytic separation technology, a vehicle-mounted ammonia-hydrogen fusion zero-carbon fuel platform is created, which is used for fuel Batteries can also be used in internal combustion engines to achieve carbon neutralization from the fuel tank to the wheels. He further pointed out that the volume and mass energy density of liquid ammonia are suitable for vehicle fuels, which solves the problem of long driving range of heavy vehicles and has the lowest fuel cost per 100 kilometers.
Second, build a vehicle-mounted ammonia-hydrogen fusion fuel cell system. Among them, the vehicle-mounted DSU in the indirect ammonia battery system (DSU+PEMFC) separates nitrogen and hydrogen from ammonia, and pure hydrogen is used for the PEMFC system; in the direct ammonia battery system, ammonia enters the anode and decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen, hydrogen protons It passes through the electrolyte layer and reacts with oxygen on the cathode side to produce water.
Third, build a new energy zero-carbon emission internal combustion engine with ammonia and hydrogen fusion. Ammonia has the two major advantages of hydrogen carrier and zero-carbon fuel, and can be used for fuel cells, internal combustion engines, gas turbines and other power to achieve carbon neutrality "from fuel tank to wheel". Ammonia-hydrogen fusion new energy internal combustion engine, changing 9 assembly parts on the basis of diesel engine, realizes the combustion of mixed gas based on ammonia-hydrogen, the diesel engine industry still has great significance in the era of carbon neutrality.
Or apply it to airplanes or ships at the earliest
Research on ammonia-to-hydrogen conversion has been carried out very early in the global field. Professor Li Liguang, a professor at Tongji University and director of the Institute of Fuel Injection and Combustion, introduced: "As early as 2004, the American Society of Automotive Engineers established a branch of the Ammonia Energy Committee to study this issue. Some corresponding results have been achieved. In marine aircraft. Especially for large ships, it has been applied. The ammonia here is not pure ammonia, some is mixed with diesel, and some is mixed with natural gas, which is actually a mixed combustion fuel."
Professor Fernandez from the German PTB National Laboratory delivered a speech on "Combustion characteristics of potential fuel ammonia in the future" at the technical branch of the Shanghai Automotive Engineering Society Annual Meeting, introducing their team's research results on ammonia. He also pointed out: "The shipbuilding industry is actively considering whether to deploy ammonia fuel on a large scale. This is a very suitable field."
In recent years, aircraft engines, automobile engines and marine engines that use ammonia are being developed internationally, such as the ammonia-based engine development model SABER, which was originally a reaction engine developed for hypersonic flight. As far as ships are concerned, private companies are already developing ammonia engines. Hyundai Mipo Shipbuilding has recently received a request from the British Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LR) to develop an ammonia fuel ship, and plans to commercialize an ammonia propulsion ship in the next five years.
In the automotive field, one of the representative cases is the ammonia engine manufactured by the Korea Energy Research Institute, which converts both liquefied petroleum gas and gasoline into gasoline. To be precise, it is a fuel mixed with 70% ammonia and 30% gasoline. After research and testing, a car equipped with this engine has completed the test at a speed of 60-80km/h. According to the explanation of Dr. Jongnam Kim, who led the study, when 70% of automobile fuel is replaced by ammonia, carbon dioxide emissions are also reduced by 70%. In addition, the existing liquefied petroleum gas refueling station infrastructure can be used as an ammonia refueling station with minor modifications, which is considered to be an advantage to increase the commercialization possibility of ammonia engines. Li Jun said that foreign OEMs have formulated ammonia energy vehicle development strategies and deployed forward-looking research and development of liquid ammonia internal combustion engines.
Although ammonia is considered a good zero-carbon fuel, many people are cautious about this new trend. Wei Anli , secretary general of the Methanol Automobile Promotion and Application Expert Steering Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, believes that from the perspective of practical application and landing, the large-scale promotion of ammonia still has a long way to go. "It is not just because it does not contain carbon to say that it is a completely green energy source. Where does the ammonia come from, whether the preparation of ammonia meets zero carbon, the smell of ammonia is very unpleasant, and how to solve the problems such as the corrosive nature of liquid ammonia? , There is no definite answer yet." He said.
Professor Fernandez pointed out: “From the perspective of the applicability of ammonia, it may not be the best fuel choice, but if you add some supplements, it may produce good results. In the long run, ammonia has great potential. The fuel is a very prominent energy carrier and can even replace hydrogen in the future."
Li Liguang also believes that although the current technology is not very mature, as a new zero-carbon trend, ammonia energy is of practical significance.